The Shoulder

The Shoulder

Shoulders rolled forward and tight.

The shoulder is one of the most complex joints in the human body and as such is vulnerable to all sorts of problems and injuries. It is a relatively shallow joint in comparison to our hip joint and is extremely dependant on muscle tone for correct alignment and joint stability. Imbalance in any of the muscles that surround the shoulder joint can easily cause postural problems not to mention shoulder pain.

As riders we tend to become aware of our shoulders when a postural fault is pointed out to us by an instructor. Common issues for riders include a) tight shoulders that are pulled up towards the ears, b) one shoulder being carried higher than the other and c) the most common problem of all, tight shoulders that are rounded forward.

Tight shoulders that are carried too high are normally the result of tension. Tight shoulders in the rider can cause pain or stiffness in their neck, back, and upper body as well as blocking the movement of the horse. The shoulders may feel tight and stiff as a result of stress, tension, fear and even overuse. Tight shoulders can be also caused by sitting for extended periods, incorrect sleeping positions, and injuries. Learning to relax the shoulders whilst off the horse and practising breathing control can both help.

Tight shoulders that are carried too high are normally the result of tension. Tight shoulders in the rider can cause pain or stiffness in their neck, back, and upper body as well as blocking the movement of the horse. The shoulders may feel tight and stiff as a result of stress, tension, fear and even overuse. Tight shoulders can be also caused by sitting for extended periods, incorrect sleeping positions, and injuries. Learning to relax the shoulders whilst off the horse and practising breathing control can both help.

Uneven shoulders or having one shoulder higher than the other is also a common problem. The discrepancy in the shoulders can be slight or significantly different. The cause can be muscular or structural (as in scoliosis) but invariably the imbalance in the shoulders is caused by the rider collapsing on one side. Becoming aware of your shoulder misalignment is the first important step, not only while you’re riding but also while you are standing or sitting. Whether the cause of your uneven shoulders is muscular or structural,  to correct the shoulder imbalance your body needs to be correctly aligned, with your shoulders the same height and facing forward. To make the changes you will need to work on stretching your “tight” side and strengthening your “long” side. Start using your non-dominant arm as much as you whilst doing yard work, join a Pilates or Yoga class and make an appointment with a massage therapist who specializes in myofascial release.

Probably the most common shoulder issue is that of rounded shoulders (also known as upper crossed syndrome) because our modern lifestyle exacerbates this condition. Rounded shoulders, along with a rounded upper back, and a chin that tends to be thrust forward become the norm, so that we are not even aware that this is how we are riding, sitting or standing! To try and correct this issue riders are frequently told that that need to take their shoulders back when they ride. Unfortunately this just doesn’t seem to work. It is not that you don’t want to do what the instructor says, it is just that your body seems to have a mind of its own and will often revert back to its default position within minutes.

Initial photograph taken on PI, the electronic horse. Upper body is behind the vertical, shoulders are rounded and feet are too far forward.

Whilst rounded shoulders and a head that pokes forward causes the rider’s weight to be too far in front of the horse’s centre of mass and pushes the horse onto his forehand, being told to take their shoulders back normally results in the rider taking their whole torso behind the vertical in an attempt to comply. Unfortunately, this takes their weight too far back, causes hyperextension in their lumbar spine and causes their horse to hollow behind the saddle.

The weight reading shows that there is far too much weight behind the centre of mass,
The rider's position has been adjusted to bring his spine into alignment and balance. The shoulders are now positioned over the hip and heel.
The weight is now correct on a front /back alignment although is a little right heavy.

Rounded shoulders don’t just affect us when we are on our horses either. Generally, the posture we have when riding is fairly indicative of the posture we are going to have when we are on the ground or vice versa. There are many reasons why we tend to round our backs and roll our shoulders forwards, and certainly when we are riding the way we hold our reins can be one. However rounded shoulders are normally caused by tight pectoral muscles and weak muscles in the back (upper and lower trapezius, deltoids, rhomboids and latissimus dorsi to name just a few) which are created by your lifestyle. Sitting at a desk all day, using a computer, looking at a mobile phone or even sleeping curled up all cause poor posture, weak back muscles, tight pectoral muscles, tight hip flexors and a weak core.

Having rounded shoulders doesn’t just affect your riding it can present real dangers for your long-term health. The most common side effect of rounded shoulders and one you might be already experiencing is strain and pain. Rounded shoulders put a great deal of stress in the trapezoids, upper back, and neck muscles. At the very best this can result in general muscle aches, and at the other end of the scale, you might suffer from pain that needs medical intervention. Rounded shoulders can also trigger tension headaches, which can then become more severe, leading to migraine. Rounded shoulders can also lead to arthritis. What might start out as stiffness in the shoulder and neck and an occasional headache can eventually become a limited range of movement and chronic pain. As already mentioned, rounded shoulders put unnecessary strain on muscle tissue, vertebrae, and joints alike, leading to high levels of inflammation which break down the cartilage and lead to degenerative joint disease.

Having rounded shoulders can promote further postural distortions throughout the body. Remember that your body is similar to a chain-linked fence in that if something happens at the top, it’s going to be felt at the bottom too. Having rounded shoulders can increase your chances of developing conditions such as forward head posture, pelvic tilt, and knee problems!

As our head comes forward and our shoulders round, we increase the weight our cervical spine has to carry.

Over time, poor posture becomes very hard to correct; in part because our proprioceptive system tells us the way we are standing or sitting is straight even when it is not and in part because our muscles, fascia and ligaments are all affected..

The only way one can really solve the issue of rounded shoulders is by working on oneself off the horse. You need to strengthen the muscles of your upper back, the rhomboids (between the shoulder blades), the rear deltoids and lower trapezius (back of shoulders, upper back) as well as opening up the muscles in your chest and strengthening the muscles that support your spine. Generally, the more you can build strength in your shoulder girdle and balance that strength from front to back, the more your body will be able to maintain proper shoulder position in a relaxed and supple state.

Whist really correcting upper crossed syndrome will take several months of regular exercise, such as Pilates or Yoga to strengthen those muscles, becoming self-aware of the issue is a great place to start. When I am working with a rider at a Posture Assessment Clinic, I try to help the student take the "first steps" to correct this issue. Normally, the starting point is to get the rider in reasonable vertical balance by using PI’s weight sensors and cameras so the rider can “see” that they are tilting their torso back. Once the rider is basically in balance we can then start to open up their shoulders by stretching their chest and drawing their shoulders backwards and downwards using a simple exercise called “Dumb Waiter”.  This can be done on PI (my electronic horse) or equally if you have a calm, quiet horse whilst mounted, whilst standing or sitting on a hard chair or Swiss Ball. To do the exercise you need to bend your arms at the elbows, bring your upper arms to your sides, and hold your lower arms in front of you, palms upwards. Have your palms as flat as possible (imagine you are holding a small tray on each hand and don’t want to spill the drink on it). On an inhale, open your lower arms to the side, keeping your upper arms by your ribs. You should feel your shoulder blades drop down your back, and your chest open. Hold for a moment and then breathing out; bring your hands back together. You can also use this moment to see if one hand is lower than the other as if it is, it will show you that your shoulder on that side is lower and you are collapsing on that side.

While this exercise frees the shoulders and allows them to be placed back more effectively, it is only a temporary solution. Just stretching is not enough. Without the required strength in the opposing muscles the shoulders will not be able to stay back without a lot of effort, which causes tension. As a rider, you need to place your shoulders correctly but without tension so you need to strengthen those muscles in your back so you can hold the correct posture without strain.

I like to recommend regular Pilates classes to help riders improve their posture and increase body awareness. Done on a weekly basis, Pilates can not only correct your shoulder issues but will help you become more stable, balanced and supple in the saddle!

Some simple exercises that can help correct rounded shoulders are given below:

Stretching Over the Ball

From a seated position on a Swiss Ball, walk your feet away from the ball until the small of your back is in contact with the ball. Allow your upper back to drop back so that you are draped over the ball, with your head hanging downwards. Take your arms slowly backwards above your head and then bring them down so that your arms are hanging out to the side, palms upwards.  Breathe deeply and relax your spine and shoulders as you allow the weight of your arms to stretch your chest muscles (when out to the side) or open up your shoulders (when overhead).

Spine Extension

Activates the muscles of your upper-back – a great way to compensate for “computer-posture”.

Sit on an exercise ball with your feet a hip’s-width apart. Lift your arms out to either side with and bend your elbows.  Now, rotate your arms so that your hands reach towards the ceiling – as though surrendering. Keeping your shoulder blades wide, lift your sternum towards the ceiling by engaging the muscles of your back between your shoulder blades. Hold this small thoracic extension for a count of 10 and then release. Repeat 10 times.

Anterior Deltoid Stretch

Lie down on a foam roller with your entire spine supported (sacrum to skull). If you don’t have a foam roller you can use a rolled blanket, towel, or yoga mat. Bend your knees so your feet are flat on the floor. Bring your elbows and shoulders to 90 degrees, so the upper arms are at right angles to your upper body, and your forearms are parallel to the roller (as in “hands up”). Relax your elbows and wrists toward the floor (they may or may not reach). Try to keep your forearms parallel to the floor; the wrists will want to be further away from the floor than the elbows, but try not to let that happen. You should feel the stretch across the chest muscles and maybe even the fronts of the shoulders. Your elbows and wrists probably won’t touch the floor, but don’t worry about that. Make sure your lower ribs aren’t jutting out. Work on allowing your body to relax and letting your chest and shoulders open for at least five steady breaths.​

Trapezius Stretch and Myofascial Release

Seated or standing, relax your right ear down toward your right shoulder. Keep your shoulders level with the floor; avoid letting one shoulder lift higher than the other. Relax your left arm down, and imagine you’re reaching for something on the floor with your left hand. To amplify the stretch, bring your left hand to the left side of your head to apply gentle pressure. Experiment by slowly lowering and lifting your chin to find a better stretch. If you find a particularly tight spot, hold there and take several relaxed breaths. Repeat on the other side.

Plank with Scapular Retraction  

Assume a forearm or low plank position.  Kneel down on all fours, place your forearms on the floor keeping your elbows bent and directly under shoulders; clasp your hands. Straighten your legs, tucking your toes under and come up into a plank position. Your feet should be hip-width apart, and your elbows should be shoulder-width apart. Contract your abdominals and engage your glute muscles. You should now be in a straight line from head to heels. Hold for a count of 5 before allowing your chest to drop towards the floor and your shoulder blades (scapula) to move towards each other. Then take your chest back up, moving your scapula away from each other. Hold each movement for a count of 5 and repeat 5 times.

The Knee

The Knee

A correctly placed knee prevents knee injury and can be used for subtle aids when we ride. However very few people actually spend a great deal of time thinking about their knees until they start to experience knee pain when they ride, a problem that is far more common than one might think. There is also some conflicting advice as to what we are supposed to do with our knees – turn knees in vs turn knees out, and for those old enough to remember – hold a 10 shilling note! So it is hardly surprising if one gets confused as to what is correct.

One of the main problems is that our knees are designed to move in only one direction, which is basically to act like a hinge. Knees are not designed to rotate.  The knee likes to move in a bending and straightening way (flexion and extension). It doesn’t like to be kinked, twisted, or rotated. So if you turn your foot into a parallel position by rotating at your knee, your knees will eventually hurt. Over the years, this pressure causes the medial collateral ligament to tighten and the lateral ligament to weaken and stretch which puts wear and tear on the joint and causes arthritis.  Basically it is our hips or more specifically our hip flexors and gluteal muscles (the muscles in our bottom) that control the rotation of our thigh and therefore the correct placement of our knee.

So on that note, let’s look at some of the common problems I see with knees when I give lessons, as well as some of the reasons why one might get pain in the knees either during or after the ride.

1. Incorrect leg position.

When you ride your ankle should be beneath your hip, as in the old adage “ear, shoulder, hip, heel” alignment. Your thigh bone should be rotated in from the hip joint, which allows the flat of your thigh to be in close contact with the saddle, your knee to touch but not grip the saddle and your lower leg to hang down the side of the horse so that the inside of the lower leg can be applied as and when needed, with an inward (not backward) nudge. To achieve this, your pelvis needs to be in neutral alignment. Too short a stirrup is a major contributor to knee pain. In addition, too short stirrups push your bottom towards the back of the saddle, causing posterior rotation to the pelvis (chair seat) which blocks your hips and forces your lower leg forwards. Too long stirrups tend to cause lower back pain rather than knee pain as they create an anterior tilt to the pelvis (overarched back). Riding with your stirrups too long also tends to take the heels too far back, which can in turn make the knee creep upwards.

2. Gripping with the knees

If you grip with your knees to stay on your horse, you may not only have sore knees but you will block the movement of your horse.  Gripping with the knees is also tiring for the rider, causing general stiffness, and pushing the rider’s seat out of the saddle. Gripping with the knees can also make the knees creep upwards. Unfortunately, gripping with the knees is very common, particularly with beginners and those who feel insecure in the saddle. The classical masters all mention that the thigh needs to be turned to lie flat on the saddle to allow the knee to find the correct position, neither gripping or flapping. Getting the thigh to lie flat takes some effort initially but can be achieved by rotating the leg at the hip slightly inward by pulling the large thigh muscle with your hand, so that the muscles lies behind the thigh rather between the bone and the saddle. However to maintain this position easily you may well need to work on opening your hips, by strengthening your hip flexors, your core and stretching your psoas. The position of the thigh directly influences the position of the knee and when the thigh and knee are in the correct position, gripping doesn’t happen.

3. Knees turned out

There is a huge difference between taking your knees away from the saddle and turning your knees out. Taking your knees away from the saddle momentarily by lifting your thighs out from the hip is a great exercise. It enables you to check that you aren’t gripping with the legs and whether your pelvis is in neutral, not to mention helping to free the hips. Turning your knees away from the saddle is completely different; it blocks the hip and tenses the gluteal muscles , the biceps femoris (the big muscle at the back of your thigh) and gastrocnmius (big calf muscle). All this results in an insecure seat and encourages excessive and very often involuntary movement of the lower leg. The remedy is the same as mentioned above. Grab hold of your thigh and pull the big muscles backwards and outwards so that the flat of your thigh can rest against the saddle. If your thigh is right, your knee is also right.

4. Rotating at the knee

We have probably all been told at some time or another that our feet should be parallel to the horse’s sides. But we haven’t necessarily been told how to achieve it. If the big muscle at the back of your thigh is between your femur and the saddle, your knees will naturally be facing outwards. To counter this it is common for riders to rotate their lower leg and foot forward by twisting at the knee. Apart from the fact that this will pretty much guarantee that you will suffer from knee pain both when you ride and in later life the incorrect placement of the thigh ensures that your hips are blocked and you can’t follow the movement of the horse.

5. Knees creeping up

Mostly our knees start to creep up when we grip with them. If your stirrups are too long and you have to reach for them you will probably tense your legs when your horse starts moving or goes up a gait. As the thighs start to tighten, the knees rise and the hips lock. As our hips and knees become blocked so does the movement of the horse. His movement therefore become less smooth, which makes one tense even more, which forces the knee to rise further etc. etc. Another reason why the knees creep up can be tightness of the psoas muscle. This in itself closes our hip joint, and pulls our thighs and knees upwards. Apart from stretching our psoas off horse with pilates and yoga exercises, one can also think about trying to capture the feel of kneeling when you ride to encourage your hips to open and your knee to stay down and still.

 6. Feet too far in the stirrup

According to the International Society of Rider Biomechanics your stirrups should be positioned beneath the balls of your foot. This is great advice, as the positioning gives your foot support and allows the ankle to be supple and soft which keeps the knee soft and supple. More experienced riders may have just their toes resting in the stirrup, which also allows the ankle to be soft and supple. The Spanish Riding School traditionally taught that there should be so little weight in the stirrups that it should look like a puff of wind could blow them away. The one thing in common with all of these practices is that the positioning allows the ankle to flex with the horse's movement which in turn allows the knee to flex. If you jam your feet into the stirrups, so that the bar of the stirrup is under your arch rather than under the ball of your foot, your ankles can no longer flex when the horse moves, which puts an enormous concussive pressure on your knees and blocks your hips which in turn will block the movement of the horse. However the problem is often not you jamming your foot into the stirrups but your foot sliding too far into the stirrup. This tends to happen when the lower leg is too far back, either because the stirrups are too long or your hamstrings are too tight. Pilates, yoga or regular stretching can help your hamstrings, whilst shortening your stirrups slightly will take care of the former.

7. Blocked ankles

Blocked ankles mean blocked knees which in turn mean blocked hips and a restricted horse. Blocked (or braced) ankles invariably come about by the rider trying to force their heels down. Our ankles should always be soft and supple so that they are able to flex with the movement of the horse. However so many of us have been taught that our heels should be the lowest point that it is very common to see a rider forcing their lower leg forward and thrusting their heel down. And whilst this might make a good defensive riding position it blocks the ankle, which as mentioned above, blocks the knee and the hip.

As already mentioned, it is is relatively easy to place your knee in the correct position by adjusting the rotation of your thigh. However it is relatively hard to maintain this position easily without working on the necessary muscles. Attending a regular Pilates, Yoga, Rider Exercise, Equi Pilates or Swiss Ball class can make a phenomenal difference to your riding. After all the correct positioning of the knee not only solves pain issues it allows us to ride with more finesse.

The Importance of Lateral Movements

The Importance of Lateral Movements

 All too many riders avoid doing any lateral movements with their horse. This can be because of fear of doing them wrong or simply lack of knowledge and not knowing where to start or why such movements are so important. I constantly hear from those that say they "just enjoy hacking out", that they have no need for such fancy movements, or from those that “do” dressage declare they "don’t’ need lateral movements until they reach Medium Level".

I couldn’t disagree more; shoulder-in, along with most of the other lateral movements, are essential tools in helping your horse become straight and supple, two of the key elements in British Dressage's Scale of Training. In fact, Nuno Oliviero declared “shoulder-in is the aspirin of horseback riding - it cures everything!”

To me, using lateral movements, is like doing Pilates with your horse. Lateral movements can be used to help correct the horse’s natural asymmetry, to help him become equally strong and supple on both sides - without which you cannot have straightness. They can be used to improve his core and strengthen his back - which are fundamental requirements if you want to ride your horse. And finally they can help your horse learn to engage his hind legs by taking them further underneath his body, which is required if you want to ride in true collection rather than just with "head set".  Lateral movements help keep your horse balanced and supple whilst only ever schooling or a riding on a single-track encourages stiffness in the and exacerbates your horse's natural asymmetry. Even if you never ride in a school you can incorporate simple stepping over exercises, such as leg yields at a walk, to positively influence your horse's basic balance.

Most horses find the lateral movements where the horse is bent against the direction of travel – such as shoulder-fore, shoulder-in, leg-yield-with-bend-against-the-direction-of-travel, and turn-on-the-forehand easier to learn than those where he is bent in the direction of travel – e.g. travers, renvers, half pass, turn-on-the-haunches and pirouette. But don’t take this as gospel, your horse may not have read this note!

If you have never done any lateral movements before, I'd recommend you start with turn-on-the-forehand, and then move on to shoulder-fore or leg-yield-with-bend at a walk. I'd also suggest you start with groundwork, where your weight can’t inadvertently make the movement harder to do, either by working on-line or in-hand. Which one of these methods you chose depends on which you prefer, but which ever method you chose make sure that you reward your horse for the slightest try. Only look for one step initially, don’t get greedy and immediately expect your horse to do a whole side of a school in a perfect 3-track shoulder-in.

These exercises are meant to benefit the horse and help him biomechanically – just as attending a yoga or pilates class helps you. Accept that things might not be perfect to start with. It is far more likely if you experience difficulties that you are either asking incorrectly or your horse can’t actually do what you are asking rather than won’t. Slow the request down and ask for less, such as only asking the front leg to move rather than the whole horse. Over time you will be able to ask and expect more. After all you wouldn’t expect your instructor to ask you to hold a plank for 60 seconds at your first ever Pilates class!

I tend to teach my horses on-line before doing the exercises in-hand but there is no right or wrong way, use which ever method you (and your horse) prefer. The most common mistake to look out for in any of the lateral movements-against-the-direction-of-travel is over bending the horse’s neck to the inside which causes the horse to fall onto his outside shoulder. This can be caused because we have asked for too much bend with our hand or because it is the horse’s hollow side and he has a natural tendency to bend that way. If you are working in-hand you can use your outside rein to prevent the excessive bend and support the outside shoulder, if you are working on-line you need to be able to use your stick to support the shoulder.

Turn-on-the-forehand

Turn on the Forehand

Turn on the Forehand in Motion - a great "Pilates" exercise for your horse. It can be done on-line, in-hand or under saddle. You can use it to diagnose which is the stiff side (shoulders lead) and which the hollow side (haunches trail) of your horse. And then you can use it to help correct the asymmetries - it encourages your horse to step under with the inside hind leg, mobilises the pelvis and engages the abdominal muscles!Here is my very artheritic Princess Perfect (AKA Abee) doing the exercise on-line.

Posted by Fran Griffith - Rider Biomechanics on Tuesday, 24 April 2018

This is a super starter exercise which helps engage the core, mobilize the horse’s pelvis and bring a hind leg underneath his body. You will need a cavesson, a single line (such as a short lunge line) or rein attached to the central ring of the cavesson and schooling whip or cane. It is important that your horse is not frightened of the stick or cane, and he is quite happy for you to touch him anywhere on his body with it. If he is concerned and you can't touch him everywhere, you aren’t ready to do this exercise yet. Equally you should be confident and competent enough so that your horse won’t walk over you, strike you with a front leg or trample you! If you aren't confident about this - don't try the exercise.

  • Stand in front of and facing your horse with one hand resting just in front of the horse’s nose holding the single rein or line. The arm should be straight (or slightly bent), so the horse is a couple of feet away from you.
  • If you have mastered the art of stelling, flex your horse's nose slightly against the direction of travel. The rein should be lying across an open hand rather than held tight. Raising your energy, slowly raise your stick so that it points towards the horse’s tail and is parallel to the ground.  Pulse the stick slightly towards the horse or gently tap your horse on his body with the full length of the stick (shoulder, through rib cage to hip).
  • The moment the horse moves one step away from the stick, drop the stick and reward your horse.
  • The hind leg that is closest to the stick should step under the horse’s body in front of the other hind leg away from the stick.
  • The front leg that is closest to the stick should step in front of the other front leg away from the stick.
  • You are eventually looking for your horse to circle around you with his hindquarters performing the largest circle and you performing the smallest.

There are a number of videos that cover teaching the horse lateral movements from the ground; these include but are not limited to Straightness Training, The Academic Art of Riding and Manolo Mandez. Books that cover the subject include Schooling Exercises in-hand which is published by Cadmos.

Posture & Balance

Posture & Balance

When I first started teaching Rider Biomechanics it was perfectly clear to me on the ground whether a rider was sitting straight in their saddle, over to one side, leaning forwards or leaning backwards. However, it soon became abundantly obvious that what I was seeing and what some students thought they were doing were poles apart.  There was a disparity between where the rider's brain told her 'straight' was and the reality I was seeing. It wouldn’t matter if I told the student to raise their right shoulder a hundred times, they would for a moment in time, but either their proprioceptive system (the body’s internal GPS) would tell them that the new position was wrong and would take them back to their reality of straight or actual tightness in certain muscle groups would prevent them from being able to make the changes I wanted them to.

Unfortunately if we want to become good riders, communicate clearly with our horse and not compromise our horse physically, we need to be able to sit in balance. So being able to sit up straight is an essential skill for riders. At the halt, when viewed from the side, the rider's ears, shoulders, hips and heels should align. When viewed from the front, the horse's neck, withers and spine should form a straight line and the rider's nose, chin, breastbone and belly button should be perpendicular to the horse’s spine. Viewed from the rear, the rider's head and spine should also align with the horse's spine. As I mentioned, being able to obtain this neutral position is essential if you wish to have clear communication with your horse. But with the student’s proprioceptive system lying to them, trying to help them find this “ideal posture” was like searching for the Holy Grail.

I soon realised that I wasn’t going to be able to make these changes happen by just telling the student to stop dropping their left shoulder. I needed the rider to see themselves as I saw them and to understand how collapsing a left shoulder could cause their horse to drift to the right.  It was whilst trying to find the solution to these problems that the idea of PI, my electronic horse was conceived. Six years down the line, PI has become an unbelievable successful teaching tool. Cameras mounted to the side and rear show the rider where her body really is in space, whilst sensors at PI’s feet show her exactly where her weight is. Faced with both her weight and a video of herself on the screen in front of her, the student’s proprioceptive system is proved the liar it is.

Self awareness of one’s postural habits and understanding how it feels to have a neutral pelvis and spine and equal weight in both seat bones is the first step towards correcting poor posture.  Only when one can find a neutral pelvis and sit in balance can one start learning how to use the pelvis and weight in nuanced ways to communicate with the horse.

Most people take their normal postural habits with them when they get in the saddle. If they normally tilt their head to one side when they are standing, then they will do the same thing when they sit on a horse. Because so many of us work in offices, a lot of people assume the classic 'computer posture' with chin jutting forward, shoulders rounded and the upper body behind the vertical, others overarch their lower backs and virtually everyone sits too far back in the saddle.  Some riders slouch off to the left or right placing their hips, shoulders, and head out of alignment. This puts more weight on one or the other seat bone, puts more weight in one or the other stirrup, puts the saddle off center on the horse, or creates any one of several other off balance scenarios. And when someone has ridden crookedly for years that crooked position feels correct even when they can see for themselves just how crooked they are.

Correcting the problem literally requires retraining the brain to understand what really straight and balanced feels like. It is not easy. Whilst the rider sits on PI, we use the weight displays and cameras to work out how we need to adjust her body to bring it in to alignment. Sometimes the rider is able to make the necessary adjustments herself; other times I use my hands to help the rider find straightness. All too frequently the rider is tight in her hips and lacks sufficient core, sometimes the pelvis is uneven with one side higher or lower than the other. Permanently correcting these issues cannot be done in one session, or even on board a horse but awareness and understanding is the first step. The rider needs to understand where the issue is and what causes the problem and then work on correcting herself, using Pilates, yoga or Feldenkrais type exercises.

Explaining the Half Halt

Explaining the Half Halt

The half halt is something that virtually every one of us has been told to do at one time or another during a riding lesson. But from running my Posture Awareness Clinics I now realise just how many riders don't understand what the term half halt really means, what they are meant to do to achieve a half halt or why they should should be doing it in the first place. Why then, if riders don’t know how to do a half halt or understand the reasons for half halting, do they not ask? Is it because they are frightened to appear less knowledgeable than their peers, or is it that they are just too intimidated to ask. I therefore thought I should set myself the task of trying to explain the half halt in detail by breaking the half halt down into a What, Why, When and How.

The What and Why

According to the FEI the “half-halt is a hardly visible, almost simultaneous co-ordinated action of the seat, the legs and the hand of the rider, with the object of increasing the attention and balance of the horse before the execution of several movements or transitions to lesser or higher paces. In shifting slightly more weight onto the horse's quarters, the engagement of the hind legs and the balance on the haunches are facilitated, for the benefit of the lightness of the forehand and the horse's balance as a whole”.  So basically, to put the definition in to simpler terms, the purpose of the half halt is to help re-balance our horse for a change in pace or direction by getting the hind leg that is on the ground to stay on the ground a little longer and to flex a little more.

So why would we want to help balance or re-balance our horse.  One example might be that I was riding a horse that was leaning on his bit and extremely heavy in my hands, by using a series of half halts, I could help shift some of his weight backwards. Equally I could be trotting around the arena and want to make a 90° turn, by applying 2 half halts before the turn I can warn my horse that I am about to make a change in direction. I can also use half halts to prepare my horse to go from a walk or trot into canter, or from canter or trot into walk or trot. I can use half halts before asking my horse to extend his gait or asking him to collect more. No wonder instructors keep telling us to half halt!

The main job of the half halt is to increase the flexion of the joints of the hind leg that is on the ground by using our weight or the weight of the horse’s head and neck to move more of his weight back. By flexing the hind leg more we prolong the weight bearing phase of that leg by keeping it on the ground slightly longer.

The When

Our aids for the half halt can only work effectively when our timing is correct. As I have already mentioned, as the job of the half halt is to increase the flexion of the joints of the hind leg, a half halt can only be applied effectively when the hind leg can comply with the request.  To understand when this moment is we first need to consider how our horse moves. Although the rhythm changes with the different gaits the basic premise remains the same. As the horse moves forwards each hind leg in turn reaches forward through the air, touches down in front of the vertical, receives the horse’s weight and flexes at the joints. The leg then passes the vertical, and as the body moves forward the leg extends the joints and then pushes off from the ground to propel the body mass forward.

So as we have said the purpose of the half halt is to flex the joints, it is obvious that the only moment in the footfall sequence that is suitable for the half halt is the weight bearing phase, i.e. between the time when the hind leg touches down to the moment it reaches the vertical. If you apply the half halt when the hind leg is in the air, it is unable to respond to the request and if you apply the half halt when the hind leg is behind the vertical the joints are already extending again and pushing the body forward.  In either of these two scenarios the half halt won’t go “though” as it is physically impossible for the horse to comply.

Even when you get your timing right, the half halt may not go through because the horse finds it difficult to comply. For example if your horse is hollow on his right side he may well carry more weight on his left fore and his right hind may step outside his centre of mass. In a case like this you may find it easier to ask for the horse to leg yield or full pass a couple of strides to the left to get the right hind to step further under before stopping into the right hind.

The How

There are several possible ways or types of aids you can use to apply half halts.

You can use your seat by pulling down with the muscles in your lower back and up with the abdominal muscles located below the navel, which uses your own body weight to load the hind leg and keep it grounded longer.

Another way is to use a light stirrup pressure on the same side and at the same time that the targeted hind leg touches the ground. So for example, if you wanted to half halt into the outside hind leg, you could apply a little pressure against your outside stirrup when the outside hind leg touches the ground.

A light rein pressure from either rein take the weight and the leverage of the horse’s head and neck and transfers it to the grounded hind leg. But the rein pressure should only be held from the moment the hind leg touches down to the time the hind leg reaches the vertical. And even more importantly the contact should not be thrown away when the pressure is released.

Half halting using the reins is probably the most common way of doing a half halt. But unfortunately too many people apply too strong a rein pressure for too long, particularly if they draw their hand back and then they inadvertently throw the contact away when they release the half halt. Try instead to think of half-halting through your core as you close the fingers. This will be felt down the length of the rein and if this is not sufficient, you can raise your hand gently, but only an inch or so. As you do so, breathe, draw up and hold—through the small of the back. Let your breath out when the horse obeys and your hand will automatically give again.

Students who have the opportunity to have a session on PI, my electronic horse, can actually see for themselves just how hard it is to just use their hands to apply a correct half halt. If you use your back and core muscles in the way described a slight pressure on the rein on the same side is inadvertently applied, as you release your back muscles the rein contact reverts to parity. Most students find that if they just use their hands they invariably apply too much pressure on the rein and cannot control the release. Another facet of PI’s programme is being able to try and time the half halt to match PI’s virtual footfall which is shown on the screen in front of you and then seeing how well you really did when you look at the half halt/footfall graph.

Depending on your horse’s conformation, temperament, training level, as well as your own weight and height you can use one of these aids, or a combination of two (seat and stirrup, rein and stirrup, seat and rein), or even all three to achieve a half halt. You should feel free to experiment with which aid produces the best result for you and your horse. Some horses are sensitive and have weak backs and don’t like too strong a seat aid and will invert right away if you try to sit deeper or heavier in the saddle. Others prefer a seat aid and yet others respond better to stirrup and rein pressure.

Pilates Exercises for your Horse

Pilates Exercises for your Horse

By now we have all heard that Pilates is really good for us. When done regularly the benefits of Pilates are numerous, including strengthening our core muscles, which in turn helps our back to become stronger. In addition Pilates teaches us body awareness, makes us more supple and can help reduce postural related pain.

What you may not have heard of is that “ Pilates” exercises for horses can offer them similar benefits. I normally begin an exercise that is new to my horse in hand or on-line, but all these exercises can be done under saddle too – and for the purpose of this article, I am going to describe the ridden versions.

Single Loop Serpentine

This exercise helps the horse loosen up without stress. It helps mobilize the shoulders which can release blockages in the neck and poll. The horse should become softer in the jaw, more flexible through the neck and back and more willing to accept contact.

  • Starting on the right rein, ride on the inside track (slightly off the rail). Leave the track at M and perform a single shallow loop to the 5m or 6m line, returning to the track at F. Repeat the maneuver on the other long side, leaving at K and returning at H.
  • Start with a loose rein and only progress to a shorter rein as your horse softens.
  • Start at a walk, progressing to a sitting trot once your horse is going well and knows the pattern.
  • Really work on the bend, switching from bending inside, to outside, to inside etc.
  • If your horse does not respond to the aids for a shallow turn, add in a small circle in that direction before continuing with the serpentine.
  • Repeat on the other rein.

Single Loop and Leg Yield

With this exercise you address the four corners of the horse, mobilizing the shoulders, rib cage and pelvis.

  • Starting on the right rein, ride on the inside track (slightly off the rail). Leave the track at M, by moving the outside shoulder to the inside, as though riding a normal single loop. 
  • As soon as you have left the track, change the bend from right to left and leg yield a few steps with your horse slightly bent to the left. 
  • Just before reaching the half way point of the school (in a line with B) ride a few steps straight on a single track.
  • After crossing  the half-way point move the right shoulder toward the fence and then change the bend and leg yield back to the  inside track, reaching it just before F.
  • Start with a loose rein and only shorten the reins as your horse gets softer. Try the exercise at a walk before progressing to sitting trot.

Twenty Metre Circle with Voltes

This exercise helps improve balance, as well as increasing your horse’s softness and flexibility. It targets the shoulders, rib cage and abdominal muscles by stretching the muscles on the outside of the bend.

Mark a 20 metre circle with a 10 metre volte at each of the circle points. The best way to mark a circle is to set a gateway of cones at each of the circle points (these circle points being the equivalent of 12, 9,6 and 3 ‘o’ clock). The more accurate the circle and voltes are the more benefits the exercise will have. I always use a tape measure to set out my circles accurately.

  • Start working at a walk and progress to a trot when you and your horse are comfortable with the exercise.
  • Walk round the circumference of the 20m circle paying particular attention to whether your horse falls out or in. If you miss the gateway with an outside shoulder then your horses in falling out, if you miss the gateway with an inside shoulder, he is falling in.
  • Try to correct any falling in or out by adjusting your seat or weight. If the horse falls out, try transferring a little more weight to the inside shoulder by doing two or three half halts into the inside front leg. Alternatively try nudging the outside shoulder inwards with your outside knee when the outside front leg is in the air. Use your reins as little as possible as pulling on the inside rein can exacerbate the situation.
  • After you have ridden the 20m circle a couple of times ride on to the first 10m volte. Pay particular attention to whether your horse finds this size of circle more difficult. After riding around the first volte a couple of times resume the 20m circle to the next circle point and ride round the next volte, etc. etc.
  • Repeat on the other rein.

 Riding exercises like these can really benefit any horse. You don’t need to do the exercises for too long, 20 to 30 minutes maximum. However If you do these sort of exercises with your horse on a regular basis you will start to see some huge improvements in your horse’s symmetry.

Posture, Position and PI

Posture, Position and PI

As a Rider Biomechanics Coach, I know that the way a rider sits on her horse influences the way the horse moves. Obviously, there are lots of other reasons why a horse may not be moving properly, such as the horse’s own asymmetry or a poorly fitting saddle, but one of the most common reasons is our own position and the way we sit on our horse.

The way we sit, or to put it another way, our posture, balance and alignment matters to the horse. Being able to take your pelvis from neutral alignment, apply a subtle weight aid and then take your pelvis back to neutral alignment can make your riding appear more like dancing with your horse. Your aids become invisible; you and your horse appear to be moving as one. A rider with a good seat allows their horse to move to the very best of his ability. Fractional adjustments in your weight will help your horse find his own balance and enable him to move with rhythm and relaxation.

Whilst most of us recognise that there is room for improvement in our riding and know that we need to make sure we are sitting properly and not compromising our horse’s balance, back or movement, there are others who are prepared to pay to have their horse’s back fixed regularly, blame their saddler for not fitting the saddle properly or change their instructor as regularly as their underwear rather than look closer at their own position.  Without a good seat, even the best back-person or most superb saddler will not be enough to allow your horse to move with optimal balance and rhythm. Taking regular lessons can help improve your seat but to improve our riding we need to know what our body is really doing and work on our body’s deficiencies off the horse!

One of the reasons it is so hard to correct poor postural habits is that our body’s proprioceptive system is very good at lying to us. Part of the sensorimotor control system, which is responsible for our balance, the proprioceptive system is actually made up of whole heap of proprioceptors that are sensitive to stretch or pressure in our muscles, tendons, and joints. It is these sensors that help the brain to know just where our feet and legs are, how our head is positioned and whether our torso is erect.

Unfortunately, as I have already mentioned, our proprioceptive system doesn’t always tell us where our limbs or spine really are.  Our proprioception capabilities can become impaired due to injury but we can also loose proprioceptive capabilities because of poor postural habits such as always carrying a handbag on one shoulder, sitting hunched over a computer or even just because of our age. It is because our proprioceptive system feeds our brain false information that we revert back to our “normal” position so frequently during riding lessons. If you have ever had an instructor tell you repeatedly to straighten your back, look up, square your shoulders or stop leaning back – then the chances are your proprioceptive system is telling you fibs.

To improve our own riding we need to really look at our position and posture, and work out what adjustments we need to make in our body. Self awareness of crookedness is the first step towards straightness and alignment. This is where I find the use of PI (my electronic horse) so very beneficial. Sensitive sensors under PI’s “feet” give continuous feedback of your weight distribution and whether you are sitting with equal weight on each seat bone, leaning too far forward or too far back. The cameras and video footage enables you to “see” in real time just how your shoulder/hip/heel alignment lines up and helps you learn to find what the correct position should feel like. Once you can sit easily in total balance and alignment, PI then allows you to experience how an adjustment of a hip or a tilt of a torso can affect your weight.

Just as we are able to help our horse make postural changes through gymnastic training, we can also help ourselves and retrain our proprioceptive system with the right exercises. If we want our horse to engage his core and stretch his top line, it is essential that we can engage ours! If your spine isn’t aligned and stabilized by strong core muscles and your hips are stiff, it’s going to be impossible for your horse to move correctly!

Pilates, Yoga and Swiss Ball classes are all perfect for riders as they help improve the posture as well as increasing flexibility in the hips and strengthening the core. In all these classes the alignment of the spine and a neutral pelvis are a key tenet. It is this basic postural principle that can help riders understand where and how to sit in the saddle.

What is Rider Biomechanics?

What is Rider Biomechanics?

Biomechanics seems to have become the buzz word in the equine industry in the last 10 or so years. Everyone these days is a biomechanics coach, but what does biomechanics really mean and is biomechanics really important to you or your horse?

Lets us look at the meaning first. If we look at Wikipedia, biomechanics is defined as “ the study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms”. But what does that really mean and how does that relate to you, your horse or your riding?

In a nutshell, Biomechanics is the science of the movement of a living body, including how muscles, bones, tendons, and ligaments work together to produce movement or are influenced by an outside force such as gravity, pressure or weight.

I like to break Rider Biomechanics into 3 components - the biomechanics of the human, the biomechanics of the horse and finally the biomechanics of the horse and human combination – rider biomechanics.

Basically all horses and all humans are born asymmetrical and as we grow older our asymmetry increases. This asymmetry places unnecessary strains and stresses on joints and ligaments, and if not dealt with can cause real physical problems for both ourselves and our horses.

The Biomechanics of the Horse

Like us, horses are born right or left handed – or more correctly in their case, left or right footed. They have a hollow and a stiff side and naturally carry more weight on their forehand.  Understanding the longitudinal (front/back) imbalance is easy, although this cannot be corrected until the lateral (side/side) imbalance has been dealt with. Understanding the lateral imbalances and indeed working out just which side is hollow and which is stiff can be far harder. 

The actual terms “hollow” and “stiff” have been used for centuries. The term hollow is used to define the side of the horse that is more contracted, whilst the term stiff is used for the side that is more stretched. In more extreme cases your horse can look a little like a banana, with the stiff side being more convex and the hollow side, more concave. This isn’t a major problem if the horse is never going to be ridden but in order to carry a rider without undue strain, the horse needs to develop a strong back, be equally strong and supple on both sides and learn to carry his weight more equally. Therefore the horse needs to be taught how to improve both his balance and straightness – his biomechanics, using gymnastic exercises.  It is only by training our horse’s muscles and straightening him that it is possible to achieve optimum movement, posture and position. A straightened horse will be physically and mentally in balance, symmetrical and supple and be able to carry his rider with ease. This training is often easier to do without the hindrance of a rider and can be achieved by working with the horse on-line, in hand or on the longe.

The Biomechanics of the Human

As I have already mentioned, all humans are asymmetrical. Most of us collapse more on one side, stand with one shoulder higher than the other, have a dominant hip or place more weight on one foot than the other. In addition to our asymmetry, all too many of us are overweight and lack muscle tone which exacerbates the asymmetry. Another big problem for so many of us, is our lack of ability to isolate certain muscles or body parts, so that we use a hand inadvertently when bringing a hip forward or we clench our gluteal muscles (bottom) when doing a half halt.

To remain healthy and certainly to become better riders we need to take responsibility for our own bodies, become aware of our posture, and work to improve our suppleness and balance. Pilates classes (either mat-based or using a Swiss ball) are absolutely perfect to create awareness, increase suppleness and core strength and teach us how to isolate specific body parts.

The Horse & Human Combination – Rider Biomechanics

Finally we come to the horse and rider combination, or rider biomechanics.  Every time we sit on a horse, we influence the way our horse moves, or he influences the way we sit. If we sit more heavily to our left our horse will move to the left. If we hollow our back, our horse will hollow his. Conversely a horse with a hollow back can cause us to hollow ours!  We need to be aware of our position and weight when we sit on our horse, we need to be able to adjust our position at any moment in time to help our horse achieve correct balance and alignment. We need to remember that our seat is the one aid we cannot take away, and do our utmost to make sure that our sitting on our horse’s back becomes as pleasurable an experience for him as riding him is for us.

When I teach, I like to use PI (my electronic horse) initially to help my student acquire “self awareness”. The weight sensors and cameras enable the student to see their own asymmetries and they have the time to learn what a neutral pelvis feels like without having to worry about the movement of the horse. The rein sensors enable them to see just how heavy handed (or not) they are and they can practice “giving and re-taking” of the reins and half halts without any detrimental effects on their horse’s mouth.

Once we become aware of our own, and our horse’s asymmetries we can use “dressage” exercises as physiotherapy for our horse. Changes of bend in motion are really good for developing the lateral suppleness of the horse as well as the suppleness of our own hips.

Isolating the Aids

Isolating the Aids

“The application of one aid alone will never produce an accurate and correct movement. Only the correct application and co-ordination of all the aids can bring about perfection” Charles Harris  - Workbooks from the Spanish Riding School.

An aid can only be effective if it is timed correctly so that the horse can comply to the request. Equally an aid can only be applied effectively if we have an independent seat and can isolate our hands and legs, otherwise the aid gets muffled by a whole lot of “white noise” caused by us inadvertently kicking our horse continuously or using our reins subconsciously. Looked at like that, applying our aids correctly and effectively is not such an easy task. All too many riders just muddle a long – and put bluntly follow the old adage “kick ‘em to go and pull on the reins to stop”. Just how many of us really spend time on getting our aids just right or finding out which combination of our aids our horse prefers? So this month I thought I would write about some fun exercises that not only improve your coordination and timing but can help your horse respond to your leg and rein aids in an increasingly sophisticated manner.

I originally learnt some of these exercises through an article written by George Williams, whilst some of the others are from the Ritters’ Exercise of the Month Club. All of the exercises are supposed to have originated from the Spanish Riding School.

The exercises can help the rider to learn the footfall of the horse and improve the independent use of their hands and legs. The horse benefits gymnastically from the use of circles and learns to relax from the rhythmic application of the aids. The exercises can also reveal what works best for your horse, some of the aids may make him rounder and softer, others may cause a brace. You can use these exercises to help diagnose which combination your horse prefers and how they affect his gait and posture.

To get the maximum benefit from the exercise you really to spend some time  setting out a perfect 20m circle in your school by using 4 gateways to form the quarters. This way you will know whether you are riding a perfect circle, or falling in or out.

The exercises work best for the horse at a trot, which is how they were done at the Spanish Riding School, but they can be modified and done at a walk, if you want to use them to concentrate on your actual timing of the application of the aids.

Exercises One to Six

Ride a 20m circle at a rising trot, rising on the correct diagonal – that is you sit when the horse’s outside front shoulder and inside hind leg are on the ground (if you do this exercise at a walk you need to apply the aid when the inside hind leg is on the ground).

One – Apply the inside rein, by gently and rhythmically closing the fingers of your inside hand, every other sitting moment of the rising trot. You do this over 12 strides so that you will gently close your fingers of your inside hand 6 times. You are looking to see if your horse acknowledges your rein aid by softening his jaw and beginning to flex slightly to the inside.

Wait a few strides before starting the next exercise.

Two – Gently squeeze the fingers of your outside hand every other sitting moment.  You do this over 12 strides so that you will gently close your fingers of your outside hand 6 times. See if your horse responds to this aid by relaxing at the poll. He should not bend or flex outwards. If he does, check that your aid is not too hard.

Wait a few strides before starting the next exercise.

Three – Close your inside calf inwards (the aids should be applied inwards and not backwards, and only the calf should be used) as you sit.  Ensure that you keep your leg long as you use it and do not grip upwards at the knee. Do this over 12 strides so that you will close your calf 6 times. Check if your horse feels more relaxed. Has he softened through the rib cage?

Wait a few strides before starting the next exercise.

Four - Close your outside calf inwards (the aids should be applied inwards and not backwards, and only the calf should be used) as you sit. Do this over 12 strides so that you will close your calf 6 times.

Wait a few strides before starting the next exercise.

Five – Close the fingers of your inside hand and close your inside knee against the saddle as you sit on every other stride. Do this over 12 strides. See if the horse relaxes his shoulder or moves his shoulder away from the nudge.

Wait a few strides before starting the next exercise.

Six – Close the fingers of your outside hand and close your outside knee against the saddle as you sit on every other stride. Do this over 12 strides.

Before continuing with any further exercises you can check if your horse is better able to stretch his topline by giving with the inside hand on every other sit.

Change the rein and repeat on the other rein.

Notice how the exercises have affected you and your horse. You should feel better able to coordinate the aids and your horse should feel softer and more relaxed.  By alternated your inside and outside aids you will have created a network of aids around your horse, so he should feel better balanced and not fall in or out as much on the circle.

Exercises 7 to 10

The next 2 exercises are best done at a sitting trot, although if you struggle with feeling the feet at a sitting trot they can also be done at a walk. The final exercise works best at a sitting trot but can also be done at the sit stage of a rising trot.

Seven - Close the fingers of your inside hand and your inside calf when the inside hind leg is in the air. Do this every other stride, so you repeat 6 times over 12 strides. Does your horse start to step further under with his inside hind leg and soften even more?

Eight - Close the fingers of your outside hand and your inside calf when the inside hind leg is in the air. Do this every other stride, so you repeat 6 times over 12 strides. Do the diagonal aids work better than the lateral aids used in the previous exercise or not as well?

Nine – this exercise is a stirrup stepping exercise and is intended to help transfer the weight from the outside front leg of the horse to the inside hind leg. The stirrup step should be applied as the leg mentioned touches down, between the moment of touch down and the vertical phase.  The sequence is ridden in 6 consecutive strides. Although the aid is referred to as stirrup stepping it is probably closer to stirrup whispering. Imagine gently lowering your toes as though pushing them through soft mud, or feathering a brake pedal. Apply the step with the outside foot when the outside front touches down (shoulder starts to move back) and then again on the outside front. Then apply the step with both your inside and outside stirrups for 2 strides as the outside front and inside hind touch down. Finally apply the step to the inside stirrup for 2 strides as the inside hind leg touches down. This final exercise should improve the diagonal coordination of the horse’s legs and support the swinging of the back.

The Importance of the Seat

The Importance of the Seat

A good seat is an essential if we want to be a good rider. Every book and every trainer seems to agree on this. How a good seat can be achieved or what constitutes a good seat, is perhaps a little less clear.

Perhaps the first question we need to ask ourselves is why our seat is so important when we ride? The answer is because apart from being our base of support, it is our primary aid. The seat provides an important form of communication between us and our horse. It is the only aid we cannot stop using while we are sitting on a horse; we can stop using the reins, we can stop using our legs but we cannot stop using our seat! If we are crooked either laterally or vertically it WILL affect the way our horse goes. All too many of us don’t exercise nearly enough, long hours sitting at a computer affects the way we sit, add in weak core muscles and tight hips and it is not surprising that so many of our horses have back issues.

Only a supple, well balanced seat allows the possibility of subtle influence. Our ultimate goal should be to be able to reduce our aids down to just tiny changes in our weight and position, so that to anyone watching it looks as though we and our horse are moving as one being.

Unfortunately, for most of us, a good seat doesn’t come naturally. And yet without a good seat we cannot expect a consistent and light contact or deliver our aids effectively. Our hands and our legs are reliant on our seat. Our horses don’t necessarily help us either. It is far, far easier to sit correctly whilst being lunged on a beautifully balanced schoolmaster than riding our own asymmetrically horse that has his own postural issues.  However for most of us, the former isn’t always an option so we have to make the best of what we have.

So let us look first at what is meant by a good seat. Traditionally the classical “good” seat has a three-point contact, comprising the two seat bones and crotch or the two seat bones, crotch and inner thighs. But a good seat surely has to vary depending on the chosen discipline. The answer of course is yes, the seat does need to change depending on your discipline, the movement required and whether you are riding a young, green horse or Prix St George super star. Nor is the seat static, horses are living moving beings and so our seat has to be dynamic not rigid.  But no matter whether we are riding dressage, out hacking, showing jumping or even eventing we need an independent and balanced seat that is supple enough to be able to mirror the movement of the horse!

An independent and balanced seat means that the rider needs to be able to maintain their own balance (self carriage) during upward and downwards transitions and sudden lateral movements (such as turns or even shying) without the use of artificial support (reins, neck strap, saddle), or gripping with their legs! If this is the definition of a good seat, how few of us actually have it? No wonder then that the Spanish Riding School used to expect their students to do 6 months to a year on a lunge without stirrups.

At the very least, our aim should be to allow our seat to follow the horse’s movement smoothly and to keep our centre of gravity in harmony with that of the horse. Only once we have learnt to sit without tension in secure balance can we really follow the movement smoothly and be effective with our aids. An outwardly correct position with tension in the wrong muscles just causes our horse to brace.